Reflecting the Value of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
in land reclamation policies in the Philippines


 © digitalpimp / Parañaque, the Philippines

Country Overview


The Philippines has rich and diverse natural resources and is one of the world’s 17 megadiverse countries. However, the country’s biodiversity is increasingly threatened and is in various states of exploitation and degradation. More than 93% of the country’s forest cover has been lost in the last 500 years, 70% of the country’s coral reefs are in poor or fair condition, a large amount of mangroves have disappeared, and over-fishing and other destructive fishing practices are rampant.

As a country with one of the world’s longest coastlines and highest coastline-to-area ratios, the Philippines has invested in land reclamation to increase the area available for infrastructure development and to stimulate growth. However, development along the coastlines can negatively impact near-shore ecosystems including coral reefs, seagrass beds, and mangroves.


Project Overview

TEEB Philippines informs land reclamation and coastal development plans for Manila Bay, where there is a planned reclamation covering 685 hectares. One of the areas that could be affected by this reclamation project is the Las Piñas-Paranaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area (LPPCHEA). This 175-hectare area was declared a “Critical Habitat” in April 2007 by Presidential Proclamation No. 1412, and was named a Wetland of International Importance (Ramsar Site) in 2013. The site attracts migratory birds as well as indigenous and endemic species of waterbirds, including some that have been classified as threatened by the IUCN. It is the only sanctuary for wildlife in the heart of Metro Manila.

An Environmental Compliance Certificate has been issued for the reclamation project in Manila Bay. TEEB will inform the compliance process by providing the Department of Environment and National Resources of the Philippines (DENR) with information about  the impacts of land reclamation on LPPCHEA.



TEEB Philippines employs a conservation, reclamation, and development scenario analysis focusing on mangroves. The study will characterize and, where possible, value potential changes in ecosystem service provisioning. The study will also identify the constituencies affected by trade-offs in ecosystem service provisioning, with a focus on vulnerable coastal population groups.


Ecosystem services focus

During a scoping workshop, participants identified storm protection, aesthetic and spiritual services, and raw materials provisioning as some of the services that may be valued as part of TEEB Philippines.


moderation Regulation of extreme events: Storm surges may increase due to the deforestation of mangroves and loss of other coastal buffers. These losses, as well as the potential impacts of reclamation on ground subsidence, are examined under different scenarios.


aesthetic Aesthetic appreciation, cultural inspiration, and spiritual experience: The study examines the impact of reclamation on aesthetic values in project sites.


material Provision of raw materials: The study examines how the provisioning of raw materials in these three sites would differ under various scenarios. Examples include fuelwood or construction materials from mangroves and seagrass from seagrass beds.


Special features of TEEB Philippines

  • Focus on policy recommendations and outputs that generate multiple, gender-sensitive co-benefits related to poverty alleviation and food security, consistent with ecosystem based management goals.


National focal point

Biodiversity Management Bureau

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)


Other engaged actors: BIOFIN, World Bank WAVES project, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development, ASEAN Council for Biodiversity, National Economic and Development Authority, Laguna Lake Development Authority, Climate Change Commission, Biodiversity and Watersheds Improved for Stronger Economy and Ecosystem Resilience, Foreign Assisted and Special Projects Office, and Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau.




TEEB_Diamond_Blk_TypeTEEB focal point

Salman Hussain, TEEB Coordinator –
Kavita Sharma, Technical Expert, TEEB National Implementation –



THIS project is funded by the EU

Latest Publications

Measuring what matters in agriculture and food systems: a synthesis

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (2018). Measuring what matters in agriculture and food systems: a synthesis of the results and recommendations of TEEB for Agriculture and Food’s Scientific and Economic Foundations report. Geneva: UN Environment. Download report

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Scientific and Economic Foundations Report

The TEEBAgriFood ‘Scientific and Economic Foundations’ report addresses the core theoretical issues and controversies underpinning the evaluation of the nexus between the agri-food sector, biodiversity and ecosystem services and externalities including human health impacts from agriculture on a global scale. It argues the…

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TEEB Challenges and Responses

TEEB ‘s progress, challenges and responses towards mainstreaming the economics of nature. [ENG] [ESP]

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TEEB for Agriculture & Food Concept Note

February 2014- The Concept Note presents the case for and proposed outline content of a TEEB for Agriculture & Food study.

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Natural Capital Accounting and Water Quality: Commitments, Benefits, Needs and Progress

December 2013 – The briefing note outlines existing guidance and examples on water quality accounting and identifies the ongoing challenges related to the development of natural capital accounting and water quality accounting. Inspired by the growing global focus on natural capital accounting, the note identifies the ongoing challenges related to the development of natural capital accounting and water quality accounting, in order to encourage debate and commitment towards effective water and biodiversity policy.

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